Recent adjustments and changes in mining laws and

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Recent adjustments and changes in mining regulations in various countries

the global mining industry has been in a downward trend since its peak in 2012. It has improved since 2016, and the market gradually strengthened in 2017. The prices of copper, gold, zinc and other mineral products began to return, constantly driving the influx of new mining investment. With the changes of mining trends, governments are also constantly adjusting their mining policies. Canadian mining magazine CIM published an article stating that the beams and worktables should often be coated with antirust oil, and some changes in the mining laws and regulations of various countries in the past two years. Now a comprehensive introduction is as follows

generally speaking, the mining laws and regulations of various countries have been revised or newly established in recent years. The first is the adjustment of taxes and resource use fees; Second, environmental protection; Third, resource nationalism is on the rise in some countries. Most countries and governments try to encourage mining activities. The only bright spot is that the Luxembourg government has taken a big step forward in space mining legislation

in July 2017, Brazilian president temer proposed to cancel the mining reform. Congress approved most of the proposals, but did not approve the mineral resources tax based on the price of mineral products. The parliament also increased the cross-border mineral resources tax and added a measure to allow small mines to pay less tax rates. According to this regulation, world-class large mining companies such as vale have to pay a 4% resource tax on iron ore; Smaller companies pay only 2%. Of course, Vale raised objections. In August, the president of Brazil also proposed to abolish the status of the Amazon rainforest reserve and allow the development of its resources, which was immediately opposed by environmentalists. Within a week, the government amended the decree to prohibit mining in the reserve and areas held by aborigines. Later, the federal court ruled to suspend the measure, and pointed out that the change of the status of the reserve must be approved by Congress for almost any chemical; Even in higher temperatures, not presidential decrees

when the new president of Argentina took office in 2016, the export tax of 5% on mineral products was abolished

in June 2017, the Argentine federal government signed a mining agreement with 20 of the country's 23 provinces. In order to promote mining investment and work together to make taxes and regulations consistent, the three provinces that did not participate in the above agreement passed legislation to cap the mineral resource use tax at 3%, and required this tax to be paid to the provincial government. The second provincial tax is limited to 1.5%, and its income will be allocated to mining related infrastructure as a fund

El Salvador passed a law in March 2017 prohibiting the mining of all metals. This is the first country in the world to issue such a broad mining ban. However, the mining of coal, rock salt and other non-metallic resources is still legal. The new law also stipulates that the use of cyanide and mercury in mining production is prohibited, and this law has been widely supported by all parties

in 2016, Bolivia's mining related contradictions and conflicts increased, resulting in the killing of several miners and the kidnapping of the Vice Minister of the Ministry of mines. The government strengthened its control over mining cooperatives and forcibly distributed profits equally to their members

in June 2017, the Democratic Republic of the Congo announced the re implementation of the previously shelved amendment to the mining law. This revision was proposed in 2015 and was shelved due to low mineral product prices and strong opposition from the industry. The revision increases the profit tax from 30% to 35%; Increase the tax on newly delineated mining rights from 5% to 10%; Raise the mineral resource tax on mining Copper and cobalt from 2% to 3.5%. Multinational mining companies believe that government tax increases cannot encourage mining investment

in 2016, South Africa began to implement the black rights measures of mining companies, stipulating that black people should occupy a minimum of 26% of the shares in mining enterprises. In 2017, the South African mining black economic empowerment charter came into force. 201 automobile factory controlled modified particles for seven years. The government announced the revision of the industrial concession contract to increase the shares that blacks must hold in mining companies from 26% to 30%

in March 2017, the president of Tanzania announced the revision of mining regulations: prohibiting the export of gold and copper concentrates; Raise the use fee of gold resources to replace the export tax of mineral products; Refuse mining companies to seek international arbitration

in 2016, the Zambian government agreed to the request of the copper mine company to change its mineral resource tax rate with the price of copper products. That is, when the price of copper is lower than US $4500 per ton, the tax rate is 4%; When the price is higher than US $6000 per ton, the tax rate is 6%. When the price is between the two, the tax rate is 5%. The tax rate of base metals other than copper is fixed at 5%; The tax rate of precious metals and gemstones is fixed at 6%. The parliament also removed the variable profit tax and suspended the export tax of 10% on ores and concentrates that cannot be processed in Zambia

in 2016, Kenya updated the old mining law of 1940: set up a license application procedure; Established state-owned mining companies and mineral and metal trading markets; Companies are allowed to hold exploration rights (in the past, only individuals were allowed to hold exploration rights). Another provision stipulates that the resource use fee will be shared by the government and the county and community where the mining right is located

in 2016, the Namibian Ministry of mines and energy stipulated that additional terms and conditions were put forward for new applications and renewal of mineral licenses, requiring any license holder to give a 5% interest to Namibian entities. At least 50% of its management must be Namibians who were not previously given priority, that is, they cannot be white

mining regulations in the Philippines have been unstable. In 2016, the former Minister of environment ordered to suspend the production of 10 metal mines; And it is suggested to suspend 20 metal mines. In February 2017, he ordered to close more than half of the 41 mines in the country. He was dismissed from his post in May. His successor and President duterte plan to enact new regulations. Duterte believes that mining companies now pay too little tax to make up for the environmental damage caused by mining. In August of the same year, the country's legislature introduced a bill requiring mining companies to obtain approval before putting into production, prohibiting mining in catchment areas and the export of unprocessed ores

in early 2017, the Indonesian government passed legislation requiring the government to occupy 51% of the interests of all foreign companies in the country's mines. These mining companies are also required to promise to build local smelters within five years in order to increase the value of mined mineral products

in 2016, Alberta, Canada, completed the assessment of oil and natural gas mineral resource tax rates and decided to implement flexible tax rates. Give a minimum tax rate of 5% to oil wells produced in the early stage. When the oil well reaches the maturity stage, its tax rate will change according to its income minus cost, and the aging oil well will reduce the tax rate. The new tax rate applies to wells drilled in 2017 and thereafter

the 2016 Canadian federal government budget decided to fully credit the tax on the investment of funds incurred in the year of mine development; The 15% exploration tax credit policy was extended for one year until March 2017

in 2016, Nova Scotia revised the resource law, and the new regulations extended the exploration certificate from one year to two years. The deadline for starting mining was extended to 5 years, originally 2 years. However, the reclamation plan and the plan of stakeholders' participation in the project need to be submitted. Transfer the resource use fee from the mineral law to the regulations so that the tax rate can be easily adjusted. In July 2016, British Columbia revised its mining laws and regulations to enforce the safety of tailings dams, and learned from the leakage accident of Mount Polly tailings dam in 2014

in 2017, northwest Canada will gradually formulate its own regulations based on the mining regulations of the federal government. This region is one of the only two administrative regions in Canada without local mining laws. Mining is one of the industries with the largest number of local employees, accounting for 25% of local GDP, but mining production is nearing the end. There have been few mineral exploration activities in the past few years. The local government hopes to rely on this legislation to enhance competitiveness, reduce the adverse impact of mining on the environment, increase concerns about community health and welfare, and configure precision oil pumps, electro-hydraulic servo valves, and PC servo controllers

in 2017, the president of the United States signed a decree to modify the "clean energy plan (CPP)" of the environmental protection agency. The plan was proposed by Obama in 2015 and formulated guiding principles for limiting carbon dioxide emissions. After trump took office, the Environmental Protection Agency proposed to abolish it in October. The mining Commission welcomes the reassessment and believes that coal is the cheapest and most reliable source of power generation

the Luxembourg government has always invested great efforts and financial support in the research and development of space resources

in November 2016, Luxembourg passed a law on the exploration of space resources to ensure that private companies can hold resources found on near earth objects, provided that they comply with international law and their work is recognized by authoritative institutions. The government of the country invested 25million euros to the American interstellar resources company for the asteroid mining project. In July 2017, the parliament passed a law to formulate corresponding legal procedures to ensure that private companies hold space resources to approve and supervise space exploration missions. This law is the first European legislation on space resources

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